Nature has been a source of medicinal agents for thousands of years, and an impressive number of modern drugs have been isolated from natural sources which are based on their use in traditional medicine. Epilobium angustifolium L is a perennial herbaceous plant that belongs to the Onagraceae family. It exhibits various therapeutic properties like anticancer, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-aging properties. Epilobium angustifolium L. contains polyphenols and secondary metabolites like oenothein B. Information was collected via Medline, PubMed, and Science Direct. Also some data have been collected from scientific journals, books, and reports. This review gives the current information on the chemical composition, traditional uses, and documented biological activities of Epilobium angustifolium L. These studies reveal that Epilobium angustifolium L is a source of medicinally active compounds and have various pharmacological effects. These studies will be helpful to create interest toward Epilobium angustifolium L and may be useful in developing a new direction for further research.Epilobium angustifolium L.is a medicinally important plant belongs to Onagraceae family. Extract from the plant is used in the treatment of many diseases for its anti-tumor, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-ulcer and many other properties. The medicinal properties of fireweed have been attributed to its high content in polyphenols and more particularly to the most abundant of its secondary metabolites: Oenothein B.