Purpose: To undertake the pharmacognostic studies of Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb.) Miq. Root for the purpose of identification and differentiation from related species. Methods: The macroscopic and microscopic features of the root were studied, including the use of powder microscopy with the aid of suitable tools and reagents. Physicochemical parameters such as ash value, extractive value and weight loss on drying were also determined. The root powder was successively extracted with different solvents followed by preliminary phytochemical screening of the extracts. Results: Macro- and micro-scopic studies revealed cork i.e. the layer of periderm present above the cortex along with lenticels. The periderm is many layered membranous with irregularly fissured crevices containing phellum and phellogen. Secondary phloem is comparatively massive without lignified tissues i.e. bast fibres and contains sieve tubes, phloem parenchyma, many enriched with starch grains. The secondary xylem lignified mingled with medullary rays, vessels, parenchyma and wood fibers. Preliminary phytochemical screening of different extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrate, protein, gum, steroid, tri-terpenoid, saponin, flavonoid and tannin in the root. Conclusion: The findings of this study facilitate pharmacognostic standardization of the plant material and add clues in the preparation of herbal monographs for Phyto pharmacopeia.