Botanical Pharmacognosy of Holostemma ada-kodien Schult
Background: Holostemma ada-kodien Schult. is a perennial, twinning, laticiferous climbing herb belongs to the family Asclepiadaceae. It is an important medicinal plant with rejuvenate properties, used in Ayurveda for promoting vitality and life. The roots are sweet, ophthalmic, emollient, aphrodisiac, expectorant and galactagogue. It is highly specialized for the richness of a diverse array of aminoacids such as alanine, aspartic acid, glycine, serine, thereonine, valine, and terpenoid sugars. Aim: The present study was performed with the objectives of elaborating the macroscopic and histo-morpho diagnostic profile of Holostemma ada-kodien and analyse the quantitative, and powder microscopic peculiarities to support its pharmacognostic characterization. Materials and Methods: microscopic evaluation, quantitative standards and powder microscopy were carried out using the stem, root tuber, root and leaves. Results: Distribution of uniseriate, tricellular clothing trichomes in the epidermal tissues of the midrib, entire leaf margin with campylodromous major venation pattern, amphistomatic epidermis with anisocytic stomata, dorsiventral differentiation of mesophyll, small palisade ratio, small stomatal index, and the vascular system with several free collateral bundles in the petiole were features characteristic of the species. Gelatinous fibers distributed as concentric ‘white rings’ in the cortical tissues of the stem as distinct groups, deposition of druses crystals of calcium oxalate in the epidermal tissues of the lamina, ground tissues of petiole, cortical tissues of stem, root, root tubers and parenchymatous pith of the stem. Secondary xylem appeared fissured as radial and tangential strips, like the spokes of a wheel in cross section of the root tuber. Xylem core seemed irregular and wedge shaped in the mature root, with more axial and radial parenchyma and less xylem fibers also features characteristic of the taxon.