Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Evaluation of Rare and Endangered Habenaria spp. (Riddhi and Vriddhi)
Genus Habenaria belongs to the family Orchidaceae and H. intermedia & H. edgeworthii are two species mentioned as drugs of Astavargha group of having antioxidant and anti ageing activity for a long time in ancient text of Ayurvedic literature. The increasing demand has resulted in commercial harvesting pressure on wild populations and that were already at risk of extinction and now become rare species due to deforestation. The botanical identities of both the species are controversial. As a result, people are using their adulterants and their substitutes instead of genuine drug. The present study is to carryout and verifies its botanical / pharmacognostical identity and their phyto-chemical difference of market samples used in the name of Riddhi
and Vriddhi in several parts of India.